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In a letter to Timothy, the apostle Paul mentioned certain wicked men, and likened them to “Jannes and Jambres”.
2 Timothy 3:8 And as Jannes and Jambres went against Moses, so do these go against what is true: men of evil minds, who, tested by faith, are seen to be false. (BBE)
“Jannes and Jambres” were traditional names for Egyptian “magicians” and tricksters who opposed Moses. The story regarding them is found in the book of Exodus, chapters 7, 8 and 9. The Lord had sent Moses to free the Israelites from slavery in Egypt, but the pharaoh’s “magicians” tried to stop that. Here is an excerpt from the entry on 2 Timothy 3:8 in the Jamieson, Fausset and Brown commentary (1871):
[…] Jannes…Jambres—traditional names of the Egyptian magicians who resisted Moses (Exodus 7.11, 22), derived from “the unwritten teaching of the Jews” [Theodoret]. In a point so immaterial as the names, where Scripture had not recorded them, Paul takes the names which general opinion had assigned the magicians. Eusebius, Preparatio Evangelica, quotes from Numenius, “Jannes and Jambres were sacred scribes (a lower order of priests in Egypt) skilled in magic.” Hiller interprets “Jannes” from the Abyssinian language a trickster, and “Jambres” a juggler […]
The below-quoted passage in Paul’s letter to Timothy records how he described those men. He did not have anything good to say about them.
2 Timothy 3:1 But be certain of this, that in the last days times of trouble will come. 2 For men will be lovers of self, lovers of money, uplifted in pride, given to bitter words, going against the authority of their fathers, never giving praise, having no religion, 3 Without natural love, bitter haters, saying evil of others, violent and uncontrolled, hating all good, 4 False to their friends, acting without thought, lifted up in mind, loving pleasure more than God; 5 Having a form of religion, but turning their backs on the power of it: go not with these. 6 For these are they who go secretly into houses, making prisoners of foolish women, weighted down with sin, [a] turned from the way by their evil desires, 7 Ever learning, and never coming to the knowledge of what is true. 8 And as Jannes and Jambres went against Moses, so do these go against what is true: men of evil minds, who, tested by faith, are seen to be false. 9 But they will go no farther: for their foolish behaviour will be clear to all men, as theirs was in the end. (BBE, note signs added)
As you can see, the wicked men whom Paul likened to Jannes and Jambres, were, among other things, lovers of money (verse 2). They becharmed gullible women and were weighted down with sin and led by lusts (verse 6). They were always “learning” but were never able to come to the knowledge of the truth (verse 7). Paul further noted that those men opposed the truth and had evil minds and were false (verse 8). In short: He was talking about some men who apparently were just as wicked as the “Jannes and Jambres” of ancient Egypt had been.
a It is quite obvious that the expression “weighted down with sin”, verse 6, refers to the wicked, deceiving men, and not the women whom they deceived.
The above-quoted verse 1 talks about “last days”. A casual reader might wonder what time that phrase refers to. The wider context makes the timing quite clear, but let us read Hebrews 1:2 where the Greek text contains the same expression.
Hebrews 1:1 God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, 2 has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds (NKJV, highlighting added)
“Has in these last days spoken”. As you can see, that “speaking” had already taken place, when the apostle wrote that letter. In Hebrews 1:2, where the above-quoted NKJV has “in these last days”, the wording in the Greek text is ep eschatôn tôn hêmerôn. In 2 Timothy 3:1, the Greek text has en eschatais hêmerais, “in [the] last days”. See also the use of similar expressions in (the Greek text of) James 5:3, 1 Peter 1:20 and 1 John 2:18 – all those passages refer to things and events in the first century. There is more on this matter, under point 4 in the article rga021.htm.
So, and this is regarding 2 Timothy 3, it appears that the apostle Paul was talking about things and persons in the first century. Even other details in that chapter indicate this.
(Those who wonder why Paul, Peter, John and James used such expressions as “last days” and “last hour”, regarding things that took place in the first century, can read the article rga042.htm.)
The Greek text of 2 Timothy 3:13 contains the word goêtes. Translators have rendered it in different ways, such as “impostors”, “jugglers”, “pretenders”, “seducers”, “deceivers” or “phony preachers”. It is obvious that the apostle Paul was talking about religious deceivers. Verse 2 records that the first thing Paul said about those men – whom he likened to Jannes and Jambres – was that they were lovers of themselves and lovers of money. With this fact in memory, let us now read verses 9–13 in that chapter. Paul contrasted the ways of those deceivers, with how he himself had acted. We read:
2 Timothy 3:9 Certainly, they won’t get very far. Like the stupidity of Jannes and Jambres, their stupidity will be plain to everyone. 10 But you know all about my teachings, my way of life, my purpose, my faith, my patience, my love, and my endurance. 11 You also know about the kind of persecutions and sufferings which happened to me in the cities of Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra. I endured those persecutions, and the Lord rescued me from all of them. 12 Those who try to live a godly life because they believe in Christ Jesus will be persecuted. 13 But evil people and phony preachers will go from bad to worse as they mislead people and are themselves misled. (GWV, note sign added)
In verse 13 where the above-quoted GWV has “phony preachers”, the Greek text has goêtes, plural of goês which was used in such meanings as “enchanter”, “juggler”, “cheat”. Related words in old Greek: The noun goêteia which meant “jugglery”, “witchcraft”, and the verb goêteuô which meant “to bewitch”, “to beguile”, “to fascinate” (like a snake) and even, “to play the wizard”. In verse 13, a literal translation would be something like “but wicked men and tricksters shall become worse and worse, deceiving”, but the GWV’s paraphrase-type translation makes the matter more clear by its wording “but evil people and phony preachers will go from bad to worse as they mislead people”. Indeed, it appears that that is precisely what Paul meant and referred to.
So, the men whom Paul referred to (2 Timothy 3:2–9 and 13) were ego-centred money-loving religious deceivers. Obviously, they tried to live at the cost of those whom they deceived. And again, Paul was contrasting his own way of life, with those deceivers’ ways and manners. Read on, for more on this.
In verse 10, the above-quoted GWV has “but you know all about my teachings, my way of life” (GWV). The apostle Paul was reminding Timothy that he knew how he (Paul) had acted, in contrast to the deceivers whom he likened to “Jannes and Jambres”.
One of the many differences between Paul and those deceivers was that Paul did not proclaim the Good Tidings for money. (There is more on this, a bit later in this article.) Again, the very first thing Paul said about those wicked, deceiving men was that they were lovers of themselves and lovers of money (2 Timothy 3:2). Let us check even the preceding verses. They record how Paul gave certain instructions to Timothy.
2 Timothy 2:24 The Lord’s bond-servant must not be quarrelsome, but be kind to all, able to teach, patient when wronged, 25 with gentleness correcting those who are in opposition, if perhaps God may grant them repentance leading to the knowledge of the truth, 26 and they may come to their senses and escape from the snare of the devil, having been held captive by him to do his will. (NASB95, highlighting added)
Verse 26 mentions “the snare of the devil”. A passage in another letter from Paul to Timothy shows that the love of money is such a snare:
1 Timothy 6:9 But they who desire to become rich, fall into temptations, and into snares, and into many lusts which are foolish and hurtful, and which drown men in destruction and perdition: 10 for the love of money is the root of all these evils. And there are some who, coveting it, have erred from the faith, and brought themselves into many sorrows. (MUR, highlighting added)
A note regarding the words “all these evils” in verse 10: The above-quoted Murdoch translation is based on the Aramaic Peshitta version, but it is in harmony with the Greek text’s wording pantôn tôn kakôn which means “all these evils”. As Adam Clarke noted in his commentary,
money is the root of no evil, nor is it an evil of any kind; but the love of it is the root of all the evils mentioned here.
The preceding verses show what the evils in question were and consisted of.
1 Timothy 6: […] 5 perverse disputings of men of corrupt understanding, and destitute of the truth, using piety as a source of gain: from such withdraw thyself. 6 But piety with contentment is great gain. 7 For we brought nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out. 8 So that, [having] sustenance and covering, let us be content with this. 9 For those that desire to be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts which drown men in destruction and perdition. (JB, comment added)
Verse 5, “using piety as a source of gain” – the Mace version phrases that as “who consider religion only as it makes for their gain”. Compare this with 2 Timothy 3:2, Paul’s note regarding the men whom he likened to “Jannes and Jambres”, that they were lovers of themselves and lovers of money. Also, compare 1 Timothy 6:10, “in their eagerness to be rich some have wandered away from the Faith” (20CNT), with 2 Timothy 3:8, “as regards the Faith, they are utterly worthless” (20CNT). And again, in the latter verse the BBE has, “men of evil minds, who, tested by faith, are seen to be false”.
So, regarding 1 Timothy 6:9–10 – the desire to become rich and using religion as a tool for that, was one of the evils which Paul was warning about. The article rma082.htm has more on that passage and matter.
2 Timothy 3:10 was quoted earlier. Paul wrote to Timothy, “you know all about my teachings, my way of life, my purpose, my faith, my patience, my love, and my endurance” (GWV).
Knowing what Paul’s example and way of life really was and what it meant on the practical level, is a key to understanding the “Jannes and Jambres” matter of 2 Timothy 3:1–13 in more depth.
The book of Acts records how Paul, when he was speaking to a group of elders, reminded them that they knew what his manner of life had been. Please read all of this passage, and note especially verses 33–35 which show that Paul had supported himself through manual work.
Acts 20:17 From Miletus he sent to Ephesus and called the elders of the assembly. 18 And when they had come to him, he said to them, You are familiar with, from the day when I arrived in Asia, after what manner I lived among you all the time […] 28 So, take heed to yourselves, and to all the flock which the Holy Spirit has made you guardians over, to tend the assembly of God which he purchased with his own blood. 29 For I know that after my departure, burdensome wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock. 30 Even from among your own selves shall arise men who speak perverted things, in order to draw away the disciples after them. 31 Therefore keep watch, remembering that for three years, I did not cease to warn everyone, with tears, night and day. 32 And now I commit you, brothers, to God, and the word of his grace, who is able to edify you and to give you an inheritance among all who are sanctified. 33 I have not coveted anyone’s silver or gold or clothes – 34 rather, as you yourselves know, these hands have provided for my needs and for those who were with me. 35 I have shown you in everything, that by working hard like this, we must support the infirm and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that he said that it is more blessed to give than to receive. (BPT)
Again, Paul reminded those elders that they knew that he had always supported himself through manual work, verse 34. (He was a tentmaker, see Acts 18:3.) And, he had even provided aid and support for others, see verses 34 and 35 above. This was in sharp contrast to the money-loving “Jannes and Jambres” type of deceiving men whom Paul warned about in his letter to Timothy (2 Timothy 3).
Acts 20: In that speech to those elders, Paul warned about deceivers whom he likened to “burdensome wolves … not sparing the flock”, verse 29 – that is, men who tried to live at the cost of Jesus’ flock. See even Matthew 7:15. Such deceivers (“wolves”) were in many ways similar to the wicked men whom Paul in his letter to Timothy likened to “Jannes and Jambres” (2 Timothy 3).
Once again, let us consider what Paul said to the elders from Ephesus, regarding his own manner of life:
Acts 20:33 I have not coveted anyone’s silver or gold or clothes – 34 rather, as you yourselves know, these hands have provided for my needs and for those who were with me. 35 I have shown you in everything, that by working hard like this, we must support the infirm and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that he said that it is more blessed to give than to receive. (BPT)
He told the elders whom he was addressing, to follow his example.
Please note that Paul was on the giving side. That is in sharp contrast to the “Jannes and Jambres” type of men whom Paul described as “lovers of self, lovers of money, uplifted in pride”, and so on.
That is what Paul referred to when he compared his own way of life – see 2 Timothy 3:9–10 – with that of the tricksters and deceivers of 2 Timothy 3:2–8 and 13.
The article rma023.htm has more on Acts 20 (and 2 Corinthians 9:7). The article rma032.htm has some notes on Paul’s example in general. The article rma012.htm sorts out the “tithe question”.
See also the “recommended reading” section, below.
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An explanation of the short names for the bible-translations that are quoted or mentioned at this site. → rsa092.htm
On the King James version. The story behind king James’ bible, including the men who were involved in producing it. → rsa032.htm
Easy keys to deeper understanding of the Scriptures. → rga021.htm
A study on the phrases “the snare of the Devil” and “the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil”. How those who were to proclaim the Good Tidings, could become spiritually unfruitful. → rma082.htm
On Acts 20:35 and its meaning. The apostle Paul reminded the elders from Ephesus that it is more blessed to give than to receive, and he told them to follow his own example in that regard. → rma023.htm
On the example the apostle Paul set, for others to imitate. → rma032.htm
What is the truth about tithing, the concept of giving “tithes” to a church? Also, what about “offerings”? → rma012.htm
Jesus warned his disciples about deceivers. He told them that many would be deceived. → roa092.htm
What happened to the saints of the New Testament? Why is there no record of their doings, after the middle of the first century? → rga042.htm
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