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A number of bible-versions have in 1 John 3:4 such wordings as “whoever commits sin transgresses also the law, for sin is the transgression of the law”. That has caused many people to think that the apostle John meant that the rules of the Old Covenant should be followed. But it is no so; this is a case of confusion created by translators. Early English bibles had more correct wordings, but later, many translators have changed the meaning.
The 1395 Wycliffe version had this wording:
1 John 3:4 Ech man that doith synne, doith also wickidnesse, and synne is wickidnesse. (WYC)
In more modern spelling: “Each man that does sin, does also wickedness, and sin is wickedness”.
In the 1525 Tyndale and 1535 Coverdale versions, the wording was as follows:
1 John 3:4 Whosoever committeth synne committeth vnrighteousnes also for synne is vnrighteousnes. (TYN)
1 John 3:4 Who so euer comytteth synne, comytteth vnrighteousnes also, and synne is vnrighteousnes. (COV)
In that verse, where Wycliffe has “wickidnesse” and Tyndale and Coverdale “vnrighteousnes”, the Greek has anomia, referring to immorality, unrighteousness.
A note: Most lexicons of old Greek give limited and simplified definitions for the noun anomia, but a study of how that word is used in the Greek texts of the Septuagint (LXX) and the New Testament, shows that it had a wide range of uses and meanings, including “wickedness”, “iniquity”, “mischief”, “perversion”, “lawlessness”, “wrongdoing”, “lewdness”, “unrighteousness”, and so on. There is more on this, later in this article.
In short – what the apostle John said, was something like this:
1 John 3:4 Anyone who practises sin, also practises wickedness. Sin is wickedness. 5 You know that he came to take away sins, and there is no sin in him. 6 No one who abides in him keeps on sinning. Those who keep on sinning have neither understood him nor learned to know him. 7 Little children, let no one deceive you. Whoever practises righteousness is righteous, as he is righteous.
In the same manner, many other New Testament passages record how Jesus and the apostles taught that the disciples were to live holy and just, righteous lives. But, one must keep in mind that new-covenantal righteousness is not defined by the rules of the Old Covenant. In order to understand 1 John 3:4, one must also keep in mind that the New Covenant is indeed something new, and not a “continuation” or “modification” of the Old Covenant. For more on this, see the article rca092.htm. The article rga082.htm contains a detailed study on the matter of righteousness, including what new-covenantal righteousness is and consists of.
The following clarifies how the word “wickedness” or “unrighteousness” in 1 John 3:4 was changed into a five-word sentence, “the transgression of the Law”.
The in 1560 published Geneva bible was an English translation which was produced in Switzerland. Its makers introduced radically changed wordings in several bible-passages. Into 1 John 3:4, they put this wording:
1 John 3:4 Whosoeuer comitteth sinne, transgresseth also the lawe: for sinne is the trásgression of the law. (GEN1560)
That misleading wording was then copied into the 1568 Bishops’ bible. In 1604 when king James I of England ordered a new bible-edition, Bishops’ bible 1602 was used as its basis. (The article rsa031.htm has some notes on this.) Later, that changed wording in 1 John 3:4 has been copied into a number of other bible-versions. This has caused many people to think that it must be the rules of the Old Covenant, or some part of them, that define what is sin, even in connection with the New Covenant. But, the apostle John was not talking about the Old Covenant and its rules. The meaning of the Greek text in 1 John 3:4 is considered below, but in short: John was simply warning against iniquity, wickedness, immorality – the opposite of righteousness.
A note: For various reasons, some might connect 1 John 3:4 with Matthew 5:17–18. That matter is sorted out later in this article.
A note: It can be easier to understand 1 John 3:4, if one first takes a closer look at the matter of the two covenants, old and new. For food for thought in that regard, look under the heading “Covenants” on the page rkw131.htm.
As was noted earlier, many English lexicons of old Greek give limited and simplified definitions for the old Greek noun anomia, but one can get a better picture of that word and its meaning, by studying how it is used elsewhere in the Greek texts of the Septuagint and the New Testament.
Old Testament: In the around 200 passages where the Greek text of the Septuagint version (LXX) has anomia, the 1769 KJ version often has “iniquity”, but in some cases also such words as “wickedness”, “corrupt”, “mischief”, “ungodly”, and so on.
New Testament: 13 passages in the Greek text contain the noun anomia; 1 John 3:4 and the ones listed below. Here, the 1769 edition of king James’ bible is quoted. In each passage, the word which is used as a translation for the old Greek noun anomia, is highlighted in bold style.
Again, in the list above, the words the 1769 KJ version uses as translations for anomia, are highlighted in bold style.
Matthew 23:28, Romans 6:19, 2 Corinthians 6:14 and Hebrews 1:9 (see above) make it clear that anomia (iniquity, wickedness) is the opposite of righteousness. – For those who are into linguistics: A study of for instance Hebrews 8:12, Greek text, shows that the words adikia, anomia and hamartia could be used more or less as synonyms.
In short: In biblical times, the Greek word anomia was used in a wide spectrum of meanings, such as “wickedness”, “wrongdoing”, “mischief”, “perversion”, “lewdness”, “iniquity” and “unrighteousness”. Anomia was the opposite of righteousness. Jesus and his apostles, including Paul, made it clear that the disciples were to live holy and just, righteous lives. At the same time, the New Testament makes it clear that the saints were not “under law”. New-covenantal righteousness is not defined by the rules of the Old Covenant.
Again, it can be easier to understand 1 John 3:4, if one first takes a closer look at the matter of the two covenants, old and new. Look under the heading “Covenants” on the page rkw131.htm.
This is the question at hand: How should one interpret the word anomia in the Greek text of 1 John 3:4?
Earlier, it was shown that the Tyndale and Coverdale versions translate it as “unrighteousness”, and the Wycliffe version as “wickedness”. Some others have “iniquity”.
Here is the Byzantine Greek text of 1 John 3:4, transcribed into the English alphabet and with phrase translations:
1 John 3:4 pas ho poiôn tên hamartian (everyone doing sin) kai tên anomian poiei (also wickedness does) kai hê hamartia estin hê anomia (and sin is wickedness)
“Everyone doing sin”, or, “everyone practising sin”. The Greek verb in question is poieô (in the forms poiôn and poiei). Many bible-versions translate it as “practises” or “practising” in numerous passages, including this verse.
Leaving out the Greek, and using a more fluent English wording:
1 John 3:4 Anyone who practises sin also practises wickedness, and sin is wickedness.
1 John 3:4 Anyone who practises sin also practises unrighteousness, and sin is unrighteousness.
First, a note: What is said below, must not be misunderstood in any way. The New Testament shows that much more was expected, in the way of righteousness, of the saints who were under the New Covenant, than was ever demanded of the Israelites when they were under the Old Covenant. Please keep this in mind, as you read on.
The matter of the Decalogue is quite simple in and by itself, but many people have been subjected to confusing dogmas that have made it hard for them to understand how things really are.
Here, it can be good to know that the word “Decalogue” comes from the phrase tous deka logous, “the ten words”, in Exodus 34:28 in the Greek-language Septuagint version (LXX). – The event when the Lord spoke the “ten words” is recorded in Exodus 20, but it is in Exodus 34:28 and Deuteronomy 4:13 and 10:4 that they are given a “name”. Here is the first of those three passages, as the 1917 Jewish Publication Society translation has it:
Exodus 34:28 And he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten words. (JPS1917, highlighting added)
(Deuteronomy 4:13 and 10:4 contain a shorter form, “the ten words”, JPS1917.)
The highlighted phrases above are correct translations of the Hebrew text. The article rca052.htm clarifies this matter in more detail, but here is a short summary.
Again, the Hebrew text of Exodus 34:28 talks about “the words of the covenant, the ten words”. Consider this: “Words of the covenant” – which covenant? Why, the one that was made by Mount Sinai. The Old Covenant.
Please note that those “words of the covenant, the ten words” were not separate or a thing for themselves. They were an integral and inseparable part of the Old Covenant. There was nothing “bad” about those ten words, but they belonged to a covenant which had many other rules. That covenant did not provide the Israelites a way to everlasting life. That may be the reason why the apostle Paul wrote, “the letter kills” and “the ministry of death, in letters engraved on stones”, 2 Corinthians 3:6–7. (The article rca112.htm has some notes on that passage.)
Galatians 3:19 shows that the Old Covenant was “added because of transgressions”, and that it was to last “until the Offspring would come to whom the promise was made” – that is, until Jesus came. When Jesus the prophesied Offspring of Abraham came and then made this Sacrifice by giving his life in place of others, it became possible to launch the New Covenant. When that happened, the Old Covenant had served its purpose and was set aside. (The article rca082.htm has more on this.) And again, this matter must not be misunderstood in any way. As was noted above, much more was expected, in the way of righteousness, of the saints who were under the New Covenant, than was ever demanded of the Israelites when they were under the Old Covenant. But again, it is not the rules of the Old Covenant that define what is sin, under the New Covenant.
Let us read some of the context in 1 John 3.
1 John 3:6 No one who abides in him keeps on sinning; no one who keeps on sinning has either seen him or known him. 7 Little children, let no one deceive you. Whoever practices righteousness is righteous, as he is righteous. 8 Whoever makes a practice of sinning is of the devil, for the devil has been sinning from the beginning. The reason the Son of God appeared was to destroy the works of the devil. 9 No one born of God makes a practice of sinning, for God’s seed abides in him, and he cannot keep on sinning because he has been born of God. 10 By this it is evident who are the children of God, and who are the children of the devil: whoever does not practice righteousness is not of God, nor is the one who does not love his brother. (ESV01)
That passage talks about practising righteousness (poieô + dikaiosunê), as opposed to practising wickedness (poieô + anomia). In short: The apostle John simply used the word anomia as an antonym of dikaiosunê, righteousness. (Antonym = a word that expresses a meaning opposed to the meaning of another word.)
Righteousness is important. Taking one passage among many – consider what the apostle Paul wrote to the saints in Corinth:
“Do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God?” (1 Corinthians 6:9, VW06)
So, the saints were to live and act in a righteous manner. Multiple New Testament passages make this clear beyond question. But again, one must keep in mind that new-covenantal righteousness is not defined by the rules of the Old Covenant.
In a way, these two passages contain an ultra-short “summary” of the matter of righteousness:
Micah 6:8 I will shew thee, O man, what is good, and what the Lord requireth of thee: Namely, to do right, to have pleasure in loving-kindness, to be lowly, and to walk with thy God (TRC)
Matthew 22:34 But when the Pharisees had heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, they were gathered together. 35 Then one of them, which was a lawyer, asked him a question, tempting him, and saying, 36 Master, which is the chief rule in the law? 37 And he said to him, Have love for the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind. 38 This is the first and greatest rule. 39 And a second like it is this, Have love for your neighbour as for yourself. (BBE)
Verse 36, “chief rule in the law”: Here, the phrase “the law” refers to a section in the Old Testament, the five books of Moses. And so, as verses 37–39 record, Jesus answered the in verse 36 recorded question by citing two passages in those books, parts of Deuteronomy 6:5 and Leviticus 19:18.
But of course, there is much more to the matter of righteousness than what can be read in Micah 6:8 and Matthew 22:37–39. The article rga082.htm contains a study on that subject.
A note: It appears that some people have wished to have “written rules” for the New Covenant. But, the New Covenant is written,
“not with ink but by the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of flesh, that is, of the heart” (2 Corinthians 3:3, NKJV).
The article rca062.htm has more on the nature of the New Covenant’s “writing”, including Jeremiah 31:33 and its translation and meaning.
For various reasons, some might connect 1 John 3:4 with Matthew 5:17–18. Let us consider that passage.
Matthew 5:17 Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill. 18 For truly I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the Law till all is fulfilled. (VW06, highlighting added)
A casual reader might misunderstand that passage and think that it means that the Old Covenant and its rules are still in force, “down to the smallest details”. But, it is not so. Luke 24:44 clarifies what the word “fulfill” in Matthew 5:17 and 18 refers to.
Luke 24:44 Then He said to them, These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me. (VW06, highlighting added)
In all simplicity: Both Matthew 5:17–18 and Luke 24:44 mean that certain prophecies which are recorded in “the Law” and “the Prophets” and “the Psalms” would be fulfilled, down to the last “jot” and “tittle” (Matthew 5:18, in the Greek text iôta and keraia, which in English terms can be said to correspond to the lower-case letter i and the dot on it).
Clarification: The Jews divide the Old Testament into three main sections, “the Law”, “the Prophets”, and “the Psalms” or “the Writings”. “The Law” is a name for the five books of Moses; “the Prophets” and “the Psalms” are names for the two other sections.
The article rca011.htm has more on Matthew 5:17–18 and 19–20. See also the “recommended reading” section, below.
Please send or mention the address to this site to others. Please also link to this site. The address to the table of contents page is biblepages.net/contents.htm
An explanation of the short names for the bible-translations that are quoted or mentioned at this site. → rsa091.htm
The New Covenant is indeed something new, and not a “renewal” or “modification” of the Old Covenant. → rca092.htm
What does the word “righteous” really mean? What does the Bible say about righteousness? → rga082.htm
On the King James version. The story behind king James’ bible, including the men who were involved in producing it. → rsa031.htm
On the Decalogue, “the words of the covenant, the ten words”. → rca052.htm
Many talk about “the spirit of the law” versus “the letter of the law”, but those expressions are not found in the Bible. On the meaning of the phrases “the Spirit” and “the letter” in 2 Corinthians 3:6–8 and Romans 7:6. → rca112.htm
On Galatians 3:17–19 and what the apostle Paul meant by “added law”. → rca082.htm
Where can one find the rules of the New Covenant, in written form? → rca062.htm
The New Covenant versus the Old Covenant. Also, some notes on Matthew 5:17–18 and 19–20. → rca011.htm
Other articles on the matter of the two covenants, old and new. → Look under the heading “Covenants” on the page rkw131.htm.
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