The New Covenant versus the Old Covenant

Also, some notes on Matthew 5:17–18 and 1 John 3:4

For the latest version of this document, click here: www.biblepages.net/rca011.htm


This article considers a number of parallels and differences between the New Covenant and the Old Covenant. It has even some notes on Matthew 5:17–18 and 19–20 and 1 John 3:4 which are for various reasons easy to misunderstand, in connection with the matter of the two covenants, old and new.

The New Covenant has better promises.

The ancient Israelites were under the Old Covenant. As long as they were faithful to Lord, they were promised a land of their own, and a good (but mortal) life with health, protection and earthly blessings. With the New Covenant, things are somewhat different.

Hebrews 8:6 But now Jesus has obtained a superior ministry, since the covenant that he mediates is also better and is enacted on better promises. 7 For if that first covenant had been faultless, no one would have looked for a second one. 8 But showing its fault, God says to them, “Look, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will complete a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah. 9 “It will not be like the covenant that I made with their fathers, on the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they did not continue in my covenant and I had no regard for them, says the Lord. 10 “For this is the covenant that I will establish with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord. I will put my laws in their minds and I will inscribe them on their hearts. And I will be their God and they will be my people. 11 “And there will be no need at all for each one to teach his countryman or each one to teach his brother saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ since they will all know me, from the least to the greatest. 12 “For I will be merciful toward their evil deeds, and their sins I will remember no longer. (NET, highlighting added)

The saints [b] were under the New Covenant, and were promised a land and a city in Heaven, blessings there, and the Holy Spirit and everlasting life.

b In this article, the word “saints” refers  to the people who received the Holy Spirit in the first century.

There is more to that matter, and to Hebrews 8 and its translation and meaning, but that is something for a separate study. These articles have a bearing on certain parts of that matter:

rca062.htm (On the Holy Spirit as the New Covenant’s “writing”, including some notes on the translation and meaning of Jeremiah 31:33 which is quoted in Hebrews 8:10.)

rba043.htm (What does the Bible say about Heaven? Were the saints to go there? What about others? What does it look like, in Heaven?)

rxa102.htm (Hebrews 4:9, the sabbatismos or rest which the saints were to enter – a clarification of its actual nature.)

Washings in connection with the two covenants, old and new.

Exodus 19:10–14 records that when the ancient Israelites approached (“drew near”) Mount Sinai where the Old Covenant was made, they had washed their clothes.

There is a New Covenant parallel to that. Revelation 7:14 contains a symbolical mention of washing of robes and making them white, in Jesus’ blood. Also, the saints had gone through a washing, baptism. (In this article, the word “saints” refers mostly to the people who received the Holy Spirit in New Testament times, in the first century.)

Exodus 24:8 records that when the Old Covenant was made, the Israelites were sprinkled by blood. That was obviously a type and shadow of things to come, a symbol for Jesus’ blood which was shed in order to ransom humans from the hands of the Accuser (cf. Hebrews 2:14 and John 3:16).

The Old Covenant was made and celebrated by Mount Sinai. The place for the celebration of the New Covenant was Mount Zion, the City of God, the heavenly Jerusalem.

Someone who casually reads the Bible, might not notice the mention of the celebration which took place when the Old Covenant was made. But it is there, in the Scriptures. It took place up on Mount Sinai. When as the Israelites had for the third time said “yes” to the covenant which the Lord was proposing, see Exodus 19:8, 24:3 and 24:7, that covenant was confirmed, and a delegation consisting of seventy-four men went up to the Lord on the mountain.

Exodus 24: […] 7 And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that the Lord has said will we do, and be obedient. 8 And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord has made with you concerning all these words. 9 Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel: 10 And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness. 11 And on the nobles of the children of Israel he laid not his hand: also they saw God, and did eat and drink. (AKJV)

Indeed, right after that covenant had been confirmed, those men went up to the mountain and met the Lord and ate and drank. Obviously, that was a celebration of the covenant which the Lord and the Israelites had just made.

Regarding the mountain where the New Covenant was to be celebrated – Hebrews 12:22 mentions its location. Read all of the following passage, and the notes below it.

Hebrews 12:18 For you have not drawn near to the mountain which could be touched and was lit with fire, and gloom and darkness and tempest 19 and the sound of a trumpet, and a voice of words […] 22 But you have drawn near Mount Zion, even the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and myriads of angels, 23 and a festal gathering and assembly of the first-born ones who have been registered in Heaven; and God the judge of all, and spirits of just ones who have been perfected; 24 and Jesus the mediator of a new covenant, and a blood of sprinkling which speaks better things than that of Abel. (BPT)

Verse 18, “the mountain which could be touched and was lit with fire” = Mount Sinai where the Old Covenant was made and celebrated. The ancient Israelites had drawn near that mountain. Verse 22: In connection with the New Covenant, the saints had “drawn near” a different mountain, “Mount Zion, even the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem”. (Saints: Those who received the Holy Spirit in biblical times, first century or earlier.)

Verse 23 mentions “a festal gathering and assembly of the first-born ones who have been registered in Heaven” (that is a literal translation). The location for that festal event was the heavenly Jerusalem. It is likely that this verse refers to the celebration of the New Covenant, its “wedding feast”. Appendix 2 in the article rba043.htm has more on Hebrews 12.

A note: The heavenly Jerusalem is indeed a heavenly city, on a heavenly mountain. A casual reader might misunderstand Revelation 21:2 and think that it talks about a city coming down to the planet Earth, but it is not so. It is obvious that in that vision, the apostle John stood on the ground of the heavenly land, and saw the by God prepared holy city come down there. The articles rba043.htm and rxa102.htm have some notes on what the Bible says about Heaven.

The sign of the Old Covenant, and the sign of the New Covenant.

The Old Covenant’s “sign” was the circumcision of males. That is why the Jews are in some NT passages called “the Circumcision”.

The Old Covenant’s circumcision was a symbol of what was to come. For, the New Covenant’s “sign” is the “circumcision of the heart”. We read:

Romans 2:29 But a Jew is one inwardly, and circumcision is a matter of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the letter. His praise is not from man but from God. (ESV01)

That refers to the receiving of the Holy Spirit, in contrast to physical circumcision. The indwelling of the Holy Spirit is the sign which shows that a person has entered into a covenant-relationship with Jesus. The article rca072.htm has some notes on the Holy Spirit as the New Covenant’s “sign” and “seal”.

The torah of the Old Covenant, versus the ‘torah’ of the New Covenant.

It can perhaps be said that the core of the Old Covenant consisted of “the words of the covenant, the ten words”, those the Lord spoke aloud and then wrote on the two tablets of stone. [b] But, there were also many other rules; they were given to Moses who wrote them down on some other material, possibly parchment.

b The Hebrew text of the last part of Exodus 34:28 translates as “and he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the ten words”. There is more on this, later in this article.

The rules of the Old Covenant are recorded in the five books of Moses, the Pentateuch. The Jews call those books by the name Torah. In religious English, that word has often been translated as “law”, but its literal meaning was something like “instruction”, “guidance”. ‘Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament’ by Harris, Archer and Waltke states,

The word tôrâ means basically ‘teaching’ whether it is the wise man instructing his son or God instructing Israel.

Many bible-versions confuse and mislead, by translating the noun torah as “law” even in such passages as Jeremiah 31:33. They have made it to “I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts”, or something similar. Some writers have then quoted such translations and claimed Jeremiah 31:33 to mean that it is the rules of the Old Covenant (or a “spiritual understanding” of them) that are written in the hearts of men, in connection with the New Covenant which Jeremiah 31:31–34 refers to. But, it is not so. Again, the literal meaning of the old Hebrew noun torah was “instruction”, “guidance”. Here, one must keep in mind that the New Covenant is written,

“not with ink but with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts” (2 Corinthians 3:3, NRSV).

In short: The New Covenant’s “writing” consists of the Holy Spirit.

Here is a translation which makes the meaning of Jeremiah 31:33 more clear:

Jeremiah 31:31 “The day is coming,” says the Lord, “when I will make a new covenant with the people of Israel and Judah. 32 This covenant will not be like the one I made with their ancestors when I took them by the hand and brought them out of the land of Egypt. They broke that covenant, though I loved them as a husband loves his wife,” says the Lord. 33 “But this is the new covenant I will make with the people of Israel on that day,” says the Lord. “I will put my instructions deep within them, and I will write them on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people. 34 And they will not need to teach their neighbors, nor will they need to teach their relatives, saying, ‘You should know the Lord.’ For everyone, from the least to the greatest, will know me already,” says the Lord. “And I will forgive their wickedness, and I will never again remember their sins.” (NLT04, highlighting added)

That translation correctly renders the old Hebrew noun torah in verse 33 according to its literal meaning “instruction”. That passage refers to the New Covenant and its “writing” which consists of placing the Holy Spirit in humans. Instead of a “law code”, the New Covenant has the Holy Spirit as its “torah” – guidance, instruction. Putting that in other words: It was not some “law text” that was to guide the saints [b] in the right ways. No, it was a matter of God himself coming to dwell in those people, through his Holy Spirit, and leading them in the right ways.

b The saints (the people who received the Holy Spirit in biblical times) were a “first-fruits harvest” for God, here on Earth. The main fulfilment of Jeremiah 31:31–34 has not happened yet. In the future, there is to come a much larger harvest. (The article rba011.htm has some notes on the giving of the Holy Spirit.)

Again, the New Covenant is written, “not with ink but with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts” (2 Corinthians 3:3, NRSV). And no, that does not refer to the Holy Spirit “teaching people the rules of the Old Covenant”, or helping people to understand those rules in a “spiritual” way, as some have claimed. The meaning is that the Holy Spirit itself is the New Covenant’s “writing”. The article rca062.htm has more on this.

A note: A casual reader might easily misunderstand the words “letter” and “Spirit” in 2 Corinthians 3. That matter is discussed later in this present article.

The matter of the Decalogue.

The word “decalogue” comes from the Greek text of the ancient Septuagint version (LXX) which has in Exodus 34:28 the phrase tous deka logous, “the ten words”. Here is an English translation of the Hebrew text of that verse:

Exodus 34:28 And he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten words. (JPS1917, highlighting added)

The actual “ten words” are recorded in Exodus 20, but it is in Exodus 34:28 and Deuteronomy 4:13 and 10:4 that they are given a “name”. The first of those passages is quoted above. The latter two contain a shorter form, “the ten words” (JPS1917).

Again, the Hebrew text calls the writing on the stone tablets, in translation, “the words of the covenant, the ten words”, Exodus 34:28, or just “ten words”, Deuteronomy 4:13 and 10:4. It is the same in the Septuagint and even in the Latin Vulgate version. The English wording “the ten commandments” came into use in Catholic times in the Middle Ages and is in fact a mistranslation.

And, which covenant does that phrase refer to – “the words of the covenant, the ten words”? The one that was made by Mount Sinai. The Old Covenant. The article rca052.htm has more on the matter of the Decalogue.

Now, did the fact that the Decalogue belonged to the Old Covenant, mean that the saints (who were under the New Covenant) could murder and steal and so on? Of course not. The New Testament, including Paul’s letters, makes it clear that the saints were to live just, righteous lives – holy, fair and pure lives. The article rga083.htm contains a study on the matter of righteousness, including what new-covenantal righteousness is and consists of.

The meaning of the words ‘letter’ and ‘Spirit’ in 2 Corinthians 3:6–8.

Many religious writers have talked about “letter of the law” and “spirit of the law”. Some of them have used those phrases for making people believe that the New Covenant is not new at all but merely the Old Covenant in a somehow “enhanced” or “spiritual” form. But, it is not so. Please read the following scripture-quote, point for point, slowly and with care. It does not contain such phrases as “letter of the law” or “spirit of the law”. It talks about two different covenants, an old one and a new one.

2 Corinthians 3:6 who has made us competent to be ministers of a new covenant, not of letter but of spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life. 7 Now if the ministry of death, chiseled in letters on stone tablets, came in glory so that the people of Israel could not gaze at Moses’ face because of the glory of his face, a glory now set aside, 8 how much more will the ministry of the Spirit come in glory? 9 For if there was glory in the ministry of condemnation, much more does the ministry of justification abound in glory! 10 Indeed, what once had glory has lost its glory because of the greater glory; 11 for if what was set aside came through glory, much more has the permanent come in glory! (NRSV)

Verses 6 and 7: When the apostle Paul wrote “letter” and “the ministry of death chiseled in letters on stone tablets”, he referred to the Old Covenant with its written rules. When he wrote “Spirit” and “the Spirit gives life”, he referred to the Holy Spirit and the New Covenant. The article rca112.htm has more on this.

Again, the Old Covenant had its written rules, but the New Covenant has instead the Holy Spirit. The New Covenant does not have any set of written rules to guide people; instead, it has God himself as the guide and instructor, through his Holy Spirit which he places in the saints. The article rba011.htm has some notes on the giving of the Holy Spirit.

Verse 9, “the ministry of justification”: Many bible-versions have “ministry of righteousness”, but the context shows that the apostle was contrasting condemnation and justification. Linguistic details: Where the above-quoted NRSV has “justification”, the Greek text has dikaiosunê (cf. dikaios, “just”, and dikaioô, “to justify”). That word could refer to justness (“righteousness”), but it is quite clear that in this case the apostle used it in the meaning “justification” (as opposed to condemnation, same verse).

A note: The saints’ justification meant that their sins were forgiven. After that, they were not to continue in sin.

Again, the article rca112.htm has more on 2 Corinthians 3 (and Romans 7:6).

The Old Covenant was a temporary arrangement. The New Covenant is permanent.

Verses 6–9 in 2 Corinthians 3 were discussed above. Let us now consider verses 10–11.

2 Corinthians 3:10 Indeed, what once had glory has lost its glory because of the greater glory; 11 for if what was set aside came through glory, much more has the permanent come in glory! (NRSV)

Verse 11: The words “what was set aside” refer to the Old Covenant, while the phrase “the permanent” refers to the New Covenant.

A note: 2 Corinthians 3:10–11 is a clear passage, but some people might have problems with it because many bible-versions have in certain Old Testament passages wordings which can cause a casual reader to think that the Old Covenant was to be “everlasting”. The article rca132.htm sorts out that matter.

In his letter to the saints in Galatia, the apostle Paul noted that the Old Covenant (“the Law”) was an addition which was to last “until the Offspring would come to whom the promise had been made”.

Galatians 3:17 What I mean is this: the Law, which came four hundred and thirty years later, does not invalidate a covenant previously ratified by God, so as to nullify the promise. 18 For if the inheritance is based on the law, it is no longer based on a promise; but God gave it to Abraham by a promise. 19 Why the Law then? It was added because of transgressions, having been ordained through angels by the agency of a mediator, until the seed [Offspring] would come to whom the promise had been made. (TCE, comment added)

Verse 17: The words “a covenant previously ratified by God” and “promise” refer to a covenant the Lord had made with Abraham, 430 years before the Old Covenant came on the scene.

Regarding verse 19: When Jesus the prophesied Offspring of Abraham then came, and made his Sacrifice by giving his life in place of others, it became possible to launch the New Covenant. When this happened, the Old Covenant had served its purpose and was set aside. The article rca082.htm has more on Galatians 3:17–19 and 21.

A note: Some writers have claimed that Galatians 3:17–19 refers to “extra rituals” that were added to the Old Covenant, and that the burnt offerings were such an addition. But, it is not so: The burnt offerings were a part of the Old Covenant from the beginning. Regarding that matter, read Exodus 20:24 to Exodus 24:6, all through. The article rca092.htm has more on the fact that the New Covenant is indeed something new, and not a “renewal” or “modification” of the Old Covenant.

Again:

2 Corinthians 3:10 Indeed, what once had glory has lost its glory because of the greater glory; 11 for if what was set aside came through glory, much more has the permanent come in glory! (NRSV)

Regarding the earlier quoted Galatians 3:17–19: The New Covenant has a connection with certain promises to Abraham. Those promises have not been annulled or set aside. The New Covenant is lasting and permanent, but the Old Covenant was only a temporary addition.

Some notes on Matthew 5:17–18.

A casual reader might come to think that Matthew 5:17–18 means that Jesus taught his disciples that they were to keep the rules of the Old Covenant, down to the smallest details, “jot and tittle”. But, it is not so. Let us consider Luke 24:44, because it clarifies what Matthew 5:17–18 means and refers to.

Luke 24:44 Then He said to them, These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me. (VW06, highlighting added)

The phrase “the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you” obviously refers to what is recorded here:

Matthew 5:17 Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill. 18 For truly I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the Law till all is fulfilled. (VW06, highlighting added)

Clarification: The phrases “the Law”, “the Psalms” and “the Prophets” which appear in those passages, are names for specific sections in the book which we call “the Old Testament”. For more on this, see the appendix at the end of this article.

The event which is recorded in Luke 24:44, took place after Jesus’ resurrection. And again, the phrase “the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you” refers to the words which are recorded in Matthew 5:17–18. The meaning of both of those passages is that certain prophecies which are recorded “in the Law” and “in the Prophets”, indeed were to be fulfilled, down to the smallest points, “jot” and “tittle”.

Here, someone might say, ‘What about Matthew 5:19–20?’

First, a note: Verse 19 is not a problem for those who first carefully study all the clear New Testament passages concerning the matter of the two covenants, old and new. They will simply note that numerous other NT passages make that matter quite clear. For more on the covenants-matter, look under the heading “Covenants” on the page rkw131.htm.

Verses 17 and 18 which were discussed above, are easy to understand. Luke 24:44 makes it clear that they simply mean that certain prophecies which are recorded “in the Law” and “in the Prophets” (in the Old Testament), were to be fulfilled, down to the smallest points. But the following verse, 19, is not in “harmony” with that. So, how should one understand it?

One way to view that “problem” might be to assume that there ought to be a “chapter break” between verses 18 and 19 – that verse 19 is instead connected to verse 20 which mentions the Pharisees. In that case, the wording in the Greek text of the first part of verse 19, tôn entolôn toutôn, might be interpreted as “their commandments”, instead of “these commandments”. Clarification: The Pharisees created numerous “commandments”, and demanded people to follow them – but they did not keep them, themselves. So, it could be that the meaning of verses 19 and 20 is that those who create rules for others but do not themselves keep those rules, are to be called the least in the Kingdom of Heaven. Well, there was more to the matter:

Matthew 5:20 For I tell you, unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. (HCSB)

Here, one must keep in mind that it is not the rules of the Old Covenant that define what new-covenantal righteousness is and consists of. The article rga083.htm contains a detailed study on that matter. The article roa121.htm has more on the Pharisees.

A note: Many translators have put into Matthew 23:2–3 wordings that might cause a casual reader to think that Jesus “upheld” the scribes and the Pharisees and their teachings. But, anyone who carefully studies all of that chapter, and the Gospels in general, will find that Jesus castigated the scribes and the Pharisees and warned people about their teachings. The article roa121.htm with its appendix has more on Matthew 23:2 and 3 and their context.

1 John 3:4 and the matter of the two covenants, old and new.

1 John 3:4 might confuse a casual reader, because many translators have put into that verse misleading wordings, such as “whoever commits sin transgresses also the law, for sin is the transgression of the law”. That wording might cause someone to think that the Old Covenant is still in force.

Some of the early English bible-versions had wordings that were closer to the meaning of the Greek text of the New Testament. The 1395 Wycliffe bible had this wording:

1 John 3:4 Ech man that doith synne, doith also wickidnesse, and synne is wickidnesse. (WYC)

And indeed, the Greek text of 1 John 3:4 translates as

Everyone practising sin, also practises wickedness, and sin is wickedness.

Or,

Everyone practising sin, also practises unrighteousness, and sin is unrighteousness.

The article rca122.htm has more on 1 John 3:4 and its translation and meaning.

And again, one must keep in mind that it is not the rules of the Old Covenant that define what new-covenantal righteousness is. The article rga083.htm has more on that matter.

See also the “recommended reading” section, after the appendix below.


Appendix – Some notes on the phrases ‘the Law’, ‘the Prophets’ and ‘the Psalms’.

The Jews divide the Old Testament into three main sections. In English translation, those sections have come to be called “the Law” or “the Law of Moses”, “the Prophets”, and “the Psalms” or “the Writings”. That concept of considering the OT as consisting of sections, can be seen even in the New Testament, for instance here:

Acts 28:17 And it came to pass, that after three days Paul called the chief of the Jews together […] 23 And when they had appointed him a day, there came many to him into his lodging; to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God, persuading them concerning Jesus, both out of the law of Moses, and out of the prophets, from morning till evening. (AKJV, highlighting added)

The apostle Paul was talking to Jews. When he was “persuading them concerning Jesus, both out the law of Moses, and out the prophets”, verse 23, that simply meant that he quoted and explained passages which pointed to Jesus, in the Old Testament sections which are called “the Law” and “the Prophets”.

More details in regard to the Jewish sectioning of the Old Testament:

The Jews sometimes call the book which we call “Old Testament”, by the name Tanakh. That comes from the acronym TNK which is combined of the letters T (for Torah), N (Neviim) and K (Kethuvim). Clarification:

A note: This usage is not “standardised”, and so, all writers may not section the Old Testament in exactly the same way.

Here is another example of the use of those OT section names, in the NT:

Luke 24:44 Then He said to them, These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me. (VW06, highlighting added)

The fulfilling of certain prophecies (Luke 24:44, quoted above), is what Jesus was talking about on the occasion which is recorded in Matthew 5:17–18. That passage is discussed in the main part of this article.

Some might wonder about the mention of “the law” and “the prophets” in Romans 3:22.

Romans 3:21 But now, a justification which is of God, without law, is exhibited, attested by the law and the prophets: 22 even a justification which is of God, through faith in Jesus Christ, for all, and upon all, who believe; for there is no difference. (LO, highlighting added)

Clarification: Even in that passage, the phrase “the Law” refers to the five books of Moses, while the phrase “the Prophets” refers to another section in the Old Testament. Details, in verse 21:

A note: The saints’ justification meant that their sins were forgiven. After that, they were not to continue in sin.

Please send or mention the address to this site to others. Please also link to this site. The address to the table of contents page is biblepages.net/contents.htm

Recommended reading here at the Bible Pages, on related as well as other matters.

An explanation of the short names for the bible-translations that are quoted or mentioned at this site. → rsa092.htm

On the King James version. The story behind king James’ bible, including the men who were involved in producing it. → rsa032.htm

What does the Bible say about Heaven? Were the saints to go there? What about others? What does it look like, in Heaven? → rba043.htm

Hebrews 4:9, the sabbatismos or rest which the saints were to enter – a clarification of its actual nature. → rxa102.htm

On biblical covenant signs, including the New Covenant related sign which shows who are God’s people. → rca072.htm

Some notes on how bible-translations mislead, by making it seem that the Old Covenant was to be “everlasting”. On the word olam in the Hebrew text of the Old Testament. → rca132.htm

The New Covenant is indeed something new, and not a “renewal” or “modification” of the Old Covenant. → rca092.htm

On Galatians 3:17–19 and what the apostle Paul meant by “added law”. → rca082.htm

Where can one find the rules of the New Covenant, in written form? → rca062.htm

On the Decalogue, “the words of the covenant, the ten words”. → rca052.htm

What does the word “righteous” really mean? What does the Bible say about righteousness? → rga083.htm

Many talk about “the spirit of the law” versus “the letter of the law”, but those expressions are not found in the Bible. On the meaning of the phrases “the Spirit” and “the letter” in 2 Corinthians 3:6–8 and Romans 7:6. → rca112.htm

On the giving of the Holy Spirit. → rba011.htm

On what the Bible says about the matter of resurrection. → rba082.htm

The “great white throne judgment” – when will it take place? → rta062.htm

What does the Bible say about the Pharisees? → roa121.htm

On 1 John 3:4 and its translation and meaning. → rca122.htm

Articles on the matter of the two covenants, old and new. → Look under the heading “Covenants” on the page rkw131.htm.


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