The Bible Pages, key-word index, section Jesus to Joel
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Section Jesus to Joel (the other sections → key00.htm)
- Jesus name:
- In the Greek text of the New Testament, the spelling is Iêsous (Ιησους, pronounced something like Ee-ay-sooce’). The Bible does not mention any other name for Jesus. We do not know whether there was an Aramaic or Hebrew form of that name. Clarification/background: Palestine had for centuries been under Greek rule and influence. In New Testament times, the common languages among the Jews in that land were Aramaic and Greek.
- But, if there was an Aramaic or Hebrew form of Jesus’ name, then it might have been something like Yehoshua. Explanation: In the Greek text of the Septuagint (LXX), the Hebrew name Yehoshua is transliterated as Iêsous (see Exodus 17:9 et cetera). It is the same in the NT: In the Greek text of Acts 7:45 and Hebrews 4:8, the name of Joshua (Yehoshua) the son of Nun is transliterated as Iêsous (Iêsou).
- Regarding the dogmas about “True Names” or “Sacred Names” (for God the Father and his son Jesus), look under the heading “Sacred names”.
- Regarding the words “Christ” and “Messias”:
- “Christ” and “Messiah” are not names but more like epithets or titles. “Christ” is an anglicised form of the Greek phrase ho Christos (“the Anointed”) which in its turn is a translation of the Hebrew ha-Mashiyach which likewise means “the Anointed”. The words “Messias” and “Messiah” are transliterations of that Hebrew word. → ega076.htm
- Look also under the heading “Kurios”.
- Jesus’ racial identity:
- Through his mother Mary, Jesus was an Israelite, a Jew, of the tribe of Judah.
- Jesus was born in Bethlehem (see Luke 2:1–7), but his family had to flee to Egypt, in order to protect Jesus. After a time, they returned to the land of Israel and lived in Nazareth (see Matthew 2:19–23). Certain NT passages indicate that later, Jesus moved to Capernaum.
- Jesus had (half-) brothers and sisters; see Matthew 13:55–56.
- Jesus’ profession (trade, occupation):
- Matthew 13:55 together with Mark 6:3 show that Jesus had the same trade as Joseph, but the translation “carpenter” is questionable. In the Greek text of those verses the word is tektôn which was used of craftsmen of many kinds. Those who check the use of that word in the Septuagint (LXX), will find that it could refer to smiths and other metal workers, construction workers, and craftsmen of other kinds. In other words: We simply do not know the exact type of Jesus’ and Joseph’s occupation.
- Jesus is the “second Moses”. Also: Similarities between Jesus and Moses. → eoa087.htm
- In what way did Jesus on the cross triumph over “powers and principalities”? → eda067.htm
- Jesus’ ascension to Heaven took place 40 days after his resurrection. → exa019.htm, appendix – exa027.htm, appendix 3
- Is there any connection between Jesus and Christmas? → ewa057.htm
- Jesus on the Pharisees. → eoa127.htm
- Who has the authority to give prayers “in Jesus’ name”, or do things in his name? → eba107.htm
- Is Jesus a “capstone on top of a pyramid” as some say, or is he, as several bible-passages say, the main corner-stone of the foundation of God’s spiritual dwelling? → eaa057.htm
- False Jesus, false lord: The lord, kurios or dominus who is served by the Catholic Church and its protesting “daughters”, is not the true Jesus. – Look under the headings “Constantine”, Kuriakê oikia” and “Church”.
- The word “Jews” comes from the name of the patriarch Jacob’s (Israel’s) fourth son Judah, Hebrew Yehuwdah. In old Greek, that became Ioudaios, in Latin Iudaeos, and in English “Jewish”.
- In the days of king Solomon’s son Rehoboam (circa 3000 years ago), the nation Israel was divided into “the house of Israel” and “the house of Judah”. The “house of Israel” consisted of Israel’s ten northern tribes, who made an uprising and chose a king of their own and (later) made Samaria their capital. The “house of Judah” consisted mostly of people of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Levi (but contained even people of other tribes), and had a king from the tribe of Judah and Jerusalem as their capital.
- The name Yehuwdiy, “Jews”, was used of the people of the southern tribes who were called “the house of Judah”, perhaps a reference to the fact that their king was of the tribe of Judah.
- Between circa 605 BCE and 586 BCE, most Jews (the southern tribes of Israel) were taken to captivity in Babylon. In the days of Ezra and Nehemiah a part of them returned from Babylon, back to the land of Israel.
- (The people of the northern tribes, “the house of Israel”, had been taken into captivity [in Assyria, Media, Persia] already earlier, between circa 734 BCE and 722 BCE. They never returned, and so, they became the ten “lost” tribes of Israel.)
- In English bible-translations, there are parallel expressions or synonyms to “Jews”, such as “the house of Judah” and so on. Even the word “Israel” is often used of the Jews, in both the Old Testament and the New Testament.
- In New Testament times, the Jews in Palestine lived, not only in the southern part of Israel which was called Judea, but also up in the north, in Galilee which in the past had belonged to the northern tribes of Israel. It appears that Samaria (which lay between Judea and Galilee) was in NT times inhabited mostly by non-Israelite people.
- Language(s) of the Jews, in biblical times
- The Old Testament was written in Hebrew, the language which the Jews apparently spoke in OT times.
- It appears that in New Testament times in the first century, only a few Jews in the land of Israel used Hebrew as a daily language, and that most Jews who lived there spoke Aramaic or Greek. (By that time, that area had for centuries been under Greek rule and influence. The Greek influence remained there, even during Roman rule).
- In the Greek text of the New Testament, the words hebraikos, hebrais and hebraisti probably refer to “the language of the Hebrews” – which in those days was Aramaic. (That is, in the case of most of the Jews who lived in the land of Israel.)
- Look also under the headings “Israel” and “Tribes of Israel”.
- What is the origin of the people who since the 1800s have moved to the land of Israel and call themselves Jews? Appendix 2 in the article ega018.htm has some notes on that matter.
- The Jewish high days. – Look under the heading “High days”.
- How the ancient Israelites reckoned the dates for their annual high days. → exa087.htm
- “There is neither Greek nor Jew” (Romans 10:12, Galatians 3:28, Colossians 3:11). → ega018.htm
- On the words and concepts “gentile”, “pagan” and “heathen”, and the Hebrew word goyim. → ega018.htm
- The Jews sort the book of Job in the Old Testament under the section Kethuvim, “the Writings”. → (eca016.htm, appendix)
- Some think that the book of Job might be the oldest one in the Bible, but that is in no way certain.
- Passages in the book of Job, mentioned at this site:
- Job 1
- Job 3
- Job 4
- Job 5
- Job 6
- Job 20
- Job 22
- Job 39
- Job 41
- For more, see the other parts of this multi-page index, or use the search function.
Jod – The letter jod is the smallest one in the Hebrew alphabet.
- Matthew 5:18 mentions “jot”, in the Greek text iôta, possibly a reference to the Hebrew letter jod.
- Regarding the practical meaning of the words iôta and keraia in the Greek text of Matthew 5:18 – obviously, Jesus meant that certain prophecies which were recorded in “the Law” and in “the Prophets” were to be fulfilled, down to the smallest points, “jot” and “tittle”. – Matthew 5:17–18 is easier to understand if one reads it in the light of Luke 24:44. For more on this, see the article eca016.htm.
Joel (Hebrew Yoel, Yowel)
- The Jews sort the book of Joel in the Old Testament under the section Neviim, “the Prophets”. → (eca016.htm, appendix)
- No passages in the book of Joel are quoted at this site.
- For more, see the other parts of this multi-page index, or use the search function.
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