The Bible Pages, key-word index, section Hierarchy to Hypocrisy
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Section Hierarchy to Hypocrisy (the other sections → key00.htm)
- Many talk about “religious hierarchies”, but the Bible does not contain such a word as “hierarchy”.
- In the ancient Greek idol religion, there was a hierarchês who was the chief priest of the “sacred rites”. The Catholic Church took that word and created out of it a Latin word and concept, hierarchia, which was then used of the ruling body of the Catholic Church.
- Again, the word “hierarchy” is not found in the Scriptures. What we find in the Greek texts of the Septuagint version and the New Testament, is the word archiereus which referred to the Old Covenant’s “great” priest (high priest). The combination archiereus occurs only a few times in the Septuagint (it uses such phrases as hiereus megas or similar), but in the Greek text of the New Testament it is used more frequently.
- Here, it is important to realise that the New Covenant does not have any mortal priests. The saints had only one priest: Jesus. Churches have their priests and priesthoods, but that has nothing to do with the New Testament or what the saints practised.
- Regarding the words and concepts “clergy” and “laity”. → nsa070.htm
- On “ordaining” and “ordination”. How did the saints choose their elders? And, were those elders ordained, and did they function as “priests” of some kind? → nea020.htm
- Who has biblical, spiritual or religious authority? Who can speak for God? → nsa060.htm
- What was the role of elders, in the saints’ fellowships? → nea010.htm
- In the Greek text of the New Testament, all of the words episkopos, presbuteros and diakonos are at times used of elders. → nea010.htm
- Did elders in the saints’ fellowships act as “rulers”? Regarding the translation and actual meaning of Hebrews 13:7 and 17 and some other New Testament passages. → nea040.htm
- Is “servant leadership” a biblical concept? Did elders in the saints’ fellowships act as “leaders”? → nea030.htm
High days (notes on the Old Covenant’s holy days and their symbolism)
- The symbolism of the Old Covenant’s weekly day of rest, the Sabbath. → nxa110.htm
- The Old Covenant’s Passover ritual. → (nca040.htm) – (nxa080.htm)
- The Days of Unleavened Bread and their symbolism. → nxa010.htm
- The Old Covenant’s high day Pentecost and its symbolism, and some New Covenant parallels. → nxa020.htm
- The Feast of Trumpets and its symbolism. → nxa030.htm
- The Day of Atonement and its symbolism. → nxa040.htm
- The Feast of Booths and its symbolism. → nxa050.htm – nxa060.htm
- The “Last Great Day” and its symbolism. Some notes on “the last day, the great one of the feast” which is mentioned in John 7:37. → nxa060.htm
- The Assembly on the Eighth Day and its symbolism. → nxa070.htm
- How the ancient Israelites reckoned the dates for their annual high days. → nxa080.htm
- Should the Old Covenant’s Sabbaths, the annual ones and the weekly one, be kept today? → nxa090.htm
- Does the New Covenant have some special day or days for “worship”? → naa040.htm
- Paul to the saints in Colosse: “Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days” (Colossians 2:16). Exactly what did he mean and refer to? → noa070.htm
- Regarding the matter of the two covenants, old and new, look under the heading “Covenant, covenants”.
Hinnom (the valley of Hinnom) – Look under the heading “Hell”.
Holy, holiness, holy ones, Holy of Holies
- On the word “holy”:
- English: The adjective “holy” comes from Old English halig (cf. modern-day German heilig). It is not possible to determine the pre-Catholic meaning of those words.
- In the New Testament, the Greek word behind the translation “holy” is often hagios whose practical meaning, depending on the context, was something like “devoted”, “dedicated” or “separated”. The saints (hagioi) had been separated from this world, to God and his son Jesus.
- The 1769 KJ version translates hagios 161 times as “holy”, 61 times as “saint(s)”, 4 times as “holy one”, plus a few times in miscellaneous ways.
- The Holy Spirit. – Look under the heading “Spirit”.
- Holy days – Look above, under the heading “High days”, and also under the heading “Worship”.
- Sanctification (being made holy). → nba020.htm – nga030.htm
- Who is a saint? What is sainthood? → nga030.htm
- The Holy of Holies behind the curtain (the inner part of the temple which was in Jerusalem). → (nxa040.htm)
- “Holy orders” – some notes on the concept “ordaining”. → nea020.htm
- The English word “honest” comes from the Latin adjective honestus, “respected”, from honos which among other things was used in such meanings as “reputation”, “esteem”, “distinction”, “praise”.
- In English, the word “honest” was originally connected to “honour”, but over time the use of the word “honest” changed so that the meaning came to be “true”, “reliable”.
- Being righteous includes that one is honest and trustworthy. → nga080.htm
- Should believers lie? → noa050.htm
- Honest occupations
- Titus 3:14, “And let our people too learn to set a good example in following honest occupations for the supply of their necessities, so that they may not live useless lives” (WEY). → nma080.htm
- Look also below, under the heading “Honour”.
- What it really means to “honour” one’s parents. → nma070.htm
- An honourable (respectable) person is by necessity also honest – trustworthy and dependable. → noa050.htm – nga080.htm
- Romans 13:7, “honour to whom honour”. → nwa021.htm
Hor (Mount Hor, Numbers 20:22 et cetera) → (noa060.htm)
Horeb (the same as Mount Sinai) – Look under the heading “Sinai”.
- In Leviticus 25:9–10, which is about the Day of Atonement, the Hebrew text contains the words yobel, shofar and teruah which all refer to [the blowing of] horns. → nxa040.htm
- The prophet Hosea’s name in Hebrew was Hoshea.
- (Even Joshua the son of Nun was at first called Hoshea. Also a number of other persons in the Old Testament bear that name.)
- The Jews sort the book of Hosea under the section Neviim, “the Prophets”, and further under the sub-sections “the Latter prophets” and “the Minor prophets”. → (nca010.htm, appendix)
- Passages in the book of Hosea, mentioned at this site:
- Some translations have in Numbers 13:8 and 16 the spelling “Hoshea”, some have “Oshea”. Those verses to Joshua. Look under the heading “Joshua”.
- Regarding the prophet Hosea and his book, look above, under the heading “Hosea”.
Host (in the meaning “the Lord of hosts”, translation of the Hebrew Yahweh tsabaoth) – Look under the heading “Omnipotent”.
Host (in the meaning “oblation”) – Look under the heading “Eucharist”.
House of God
- Where and what is the New Covenant’s “House of God” (“temple”)? → (naa040.htm)
- On the matter of “worship”, including the concept “going to church”. → naa040.htm
- Look also under the headings “Tabernacle” and “Temple”.
House of David, house of Israel
- Regarding certain Anglo-Israelist dogmas:
- Is the line of David the king of Israel still ruling somewhere on Earth? → nya100.htm
- When Jesus sent the 12 to “the lost sheep of the house of Israel”, Matthew 10:6, exactly what did that refer to? → nya080.htm
- On what the expression “house of Israel” means and refers to, in the book of Ezekiel. → nya070.htm
- Look also under the headings “Israel”, “Jacob” and “Tribes of Israel”.
Humility – Pride and humility in connection with religion. → nga100.htm
Hundred and forty-four thousand – Look under the heading “144000”.
- Mark 7:22–23, “The taking of goods and of life, broken faith between husband and wife, the desire of wealth, wrongdoing, deceit, sins of the flesh, an evil eye, angry words, pride, foolish acts: All these evil things come from inside, and make the man unclean.” (BBE).
- 1 Peter 3:7, “Husbands, likewise, dwell with them with understanding, giving honour to the wife […] that your prayers may not be hindered” (NKJV). → nba100.htm
- Paul to the saints in Corinth: “For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy. For I have betrothed you to one husband, to present you as a chaste virgin to Christ” (2 Corinthians 11:2). → nba010.htm – nba020.htm
- Revelation 21:2, “And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down, from God, out of the sky, having been prepared as a bride adorned for her husband”. → nba040.htm
- Look also under the heading “Wives”.
- The archaic word “husbandman” refers to such things as farmer, farm-worker, gardener.
- Where the KJV1769 NT has “husbandman” or “husbandmen”, the Greek text has geôrgos which referred to a person involved in agriculture. (Geôrgos was combined of gê, “soil” or “land”, and ergon, “to work”. The noun geôrgia and the verb geôrgeô referred to agriculture, farming, cultivation and similar things.
- The husbandman or vineyard keeper of John 15. → naa110.htm
- Where the KJV1769 Old Testament has the word “hypocrite” or “hypocrisy” (14 passages), the Hebrew word in question is either the adjective chaneph or the noun choneph; both refer to what could be translated as “corrupted”, “godless”, or similar. (The related verb chaneph, meaning “to defile”, “to corrupt”, appears in 9 OT passages.)
- Where the KJV1769 New Testament has “hypocrite” or “hypocrisy”, the Greek word in question is either hupokritês or hupokrisis.
- The old Greek noun hupokritês meant “an actor” (and also, “interpreter” or “expounder”). Clarification: It appears that in New Testament times, the theatres in Judea were of the Greek kind. (The land of Israel had for a long time been under Greek influence, already before NT times. Many Jews spoke Greek.) The actors, called hupokritai, often wore masks which covered their real faces and represented different (Greek) “gods”. In other words: They acted as if they were “speaking for the gods”.
- 6 passages in the Greek NT text contain the related adjective anupokritos, meaning “un-theatral” and “unfeigned” (“genuine”).
- In James 5:12, some Greek NT texts have ina mê eis hupokrisin pesête which means “so that you will not fall into hypocrisy”, but some have ina mê hupo krisin pesête, “so that you will not fall under judgment”. → (noa050.htm)
- Hypocrisy (pretence) is a form of lying. What does the Bible say about lies, lying and liars? → noa050.htm
- Pride and humility in connection with religion. → nga100.htm
- For more, see the other parts of this multi-page index, or use the search function.
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