The Bible Pages, key-word index, section Ben Asher to Bogomils
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Section Ben Asher to Bogomils (the other sections → key00.htm)
- Aaron ben Moses ben Asher, d. ca 960, was a Jew who (or whose family) is said to have been involved in compiling the so-called “Ben Asher text” (Hebrew/Aramaic, Old Testament). What he or they did, was not a matter of “preserving an old text” as some have claimed but rather a matter of compiling a new edition of the Old Testament, a “standardised” one. From an article in the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia:
- “He wrote a manuscript of the Old Testament and marked it with vowel-signs and accents. He spent many years of study in preparing this codex, and revised it several times. It became the standard for all later generations; and with a few exceptions (where it follows his contemporary rival, Ben Naphtali) the present Masoretic text is based on his work.”
- Note the words “he spent many years of study in preparing this codex, and revised it several times”. In those days (the tenth century), the Hebrew OT texts had come to have many differences. Point: The Ben Asher text is not “original” but merely an effort to produce a (new) “standard text”, apparently from several different earlier copies. In other words: The “Ben Asher” text is only circa 1000 years old (with eventual later changes), and not in any way an “original text”.
- Look also under the headings “Old Testament” and “Manuscripts”.
Ben ha arbayim (this has to do with the timing of the Old Covenant’s Passover ritual)
- The Passover lambs were to be killed “between the evenings”, Hebrew ben ha arbayim (Exodus 12:6, et cetera). Did that phrase refer to “twilight” or “dusk” as some have claimed, or to the middle of the afternoon which is when Jesus the Lamb of God gave his life? → exa087.htm
- Often, when some older bible-translations contain the word “benefit”, that refers to good works. (For instance in the 1769 King James version, the passages in question are 2 Chronicles 32:25, Psalms 68:19, 103:2 and 116:12, Jeremiah 18:10, 2 Corinthians 1:15, 1 Timothy 6:2 and Philemon 1:14.)
- Clarification: The KJV1769 uses the word “benefit” in its original meaning which is found in the old Latin noun benefactum which simply meant “good work”, “good deed”.
- Thus, for instance the phrase “that thy benefit should not be as it were of necessity, but willingly” in the KJV1769 simply means, “that your good deed might not be by compulsion, as it were, but willingly”.
- Look under the heading “Good works”.
- Benjamin was the patriarch Jacob’s twelfth son (born by Rachel, her second and last child, see Genesis 35:16–19).
- Benjamin’s descendants came to form the tribe of Benjamin, one of Israel’s twelve tribes.
- Between circa 2700 and 2500 years ago, the Israelites were driven out from the Promised Land and taken into captivity and dispersion. The northern tribes, including Benjamin, never returned to that land. Through this, they became the ten “lost” tribes of Israel.
- Some writers have claimed that the people of Norway are “descendants of Benjamin”. Is that true? → eya097.htm
- Berea, mentioned in Acts 17:10 and 13 and 20:4, was a town in Macedonia, Greece.
Beth-Hadudu or Beth-chadedun – A cliff from which the goat for Azazel was thrust to its death. → exa048.htm
Bethabara – Some manuscripts have in John 1:28 the name “Bethabara”, but most probably it should be Bethany (Bethania), just as most manuscripts have it.
Bethany (Bethania in the Greek text of the NT)
- In the NT, two places were called Bethania. One of them was close to Jerusalem by the Mount of Olives; the other one was beyond Jordan (John 1:28; look also above, under the heading “Bethabara”).
- In the Old Testament, the town-name Bethlehem occurs in around 41 passages. In the Hebrew text, the name is Beyth Lechem, sometimes qualified by the word Yehuwdah in order to note that the town in question lay in Judea. Thence, the English translation “Bethlehemjudah”.
- Genesis 35:19 and 48:7 show that the town Bethlehem in Judea was also called Ephratah (Ephrath). Its inhabitants were called Ephrathites.
- In the New Testament, 8 passages mention Bethlehem. In the Greek text, the spelling is Bêthleem.
- Jesus was born in Bethlehem but his family had to flee to Egypt, to protect Jesus, see Matthew 2.
- The word “bible” comes from the old Greek noun biblos (bublos) which referred to the papyrus reed, and the paper which was produced from it.
- The diminutive form of biblos was biblion which referred to “paper”, “scroll”, “letter”. Thence, the Greek phrase ta biblia which meant “the scrolls” (“the books”), and from that, the word “Bible” which was introduced into the English language in the early 14th century.
- Some think that it was Wycliffe who began using the word “Bible”.
- The Bible: The Jews divide the books of the Old Testament into three sections, Torah (the five books of Moses), Neviim (“the Prophets”) and Kethuvim (“the Writings”). It is from those three words that the acronym “TNK” comes from; the word Tanakh is in its turn formed of that acronym. → eca016.htm, appendix
- Where in the Bible can one find the New Covenant’s “law” or “rules” in written form? → eca066.htm
- Bible study – keys, helps and tools for deeper understanding of the Scriptures. → ega027.htm – esa017.htm – esa027.htm
- On king James’ bible and the men who were involved in producing it. → esa037.htm
- Bible texts:
- On the Ben Asher text (Hebrew, OT) – Look above, under the heading “Ben Asher”.
- Regarding the so-called “textus receptus” or “received text” (a Latin-Greek NT text), look under the heading “Textus receptus”.
- On the seeming “subdivisions” of the Old Covenant’s rules (“statutes”, “decrees”, “charges” and so on”). → eca037.htm
- Regarding “interlinear bibles”: Many people have been caused to think that interlinears would somehow be more reliable and objective than translations without the Hebrew and Greek texts. But, all interlinears are, of course, a work of men, where the translators have included their bias and (through their choice and arrangement of words) even church dogmas and so on. In short: Interlinear bibles are just as biased and slanted as other translations. Regarding keys, helps and tools for deeper understanding of the Scriptures, see the articles ega027.htm, esa017.htm, and esa027.htm.
- Check your bible-knowledge – a self-test with fifteen questions. → esa046.htm
- Whom should one listen to, in regard to spiritual matters? → esa056.htm
- Who has “biblical authority”? That is: Who can speak for God? → esa068.htm
- Is it biblical to have “doctors of theology” and “doctrines”? → esa087.htm
- “Bible code” – Regarding the “secret codes” that some claim to be found in the Bible, look under the heading “Code”, subheading “Bible code”.
- An explanation of the short names for the bible-translations that are quoted or mentioned at this site. → esa095.htm
- Some have written books about “bible code”. Anyone who looks at that matter in an analytical way, will find out what it really is all about. Authors of “bible code” books simply choose some portion of the Hebrew Old Testament text and place it into an array in such a way that they can “find” some specific row of consonants, and then they fill in whatever vowels they wish to have there. (Old Hebrew was mostly written with consonants only.) It is, of course, easy to “find” (produce) “secret, hidden messages” in that way.
- Delusions of that kind lead people away from real bible-study.
Bilhah – Bilhah was the handmaid whom Rachel gave to Jacob as a concubine (Genesis 30:3). Bilhah was mother of Dan and Naphtali.
Bind and loose – The “binding and loosing” of Matthew 16:19. → eba077.htm
- An explanation of the nature of the “birthright”, the special right of the firstborn son in regard to inheritance, in old times. → eya047.htm
- Esau sold his birthright. → eya047.htm – (eaa127.htm)
- What Jacob’s and Joseph’s birthright consisted of. → eya047.htm
- Jacob’s firstborn son Reuben lost his birthright (because of an offence), and it went to his half-brother Joseph instead. → eya047.htm
BIS (A bible-translation.) → esa095.htm
- Many bible-translators have made it seem that the saints had “bishops”. But, did they really have “priests” and “bishops”? → eea027.htm – eaa088.htm – eea017.htm
- On the meaning of the saying “no bishop, no king”, by James I of England. → esa037.htm
- What does the Bible say about religious titles, such as “apostle”, “bishop”, “evangelist”, “father”, “pastor” and so on? → eaa088.htm
- Bishops’ bible is an English bible-translation, first published 1568, with many later editions. Appendix 1 in the article esa037.htm contains an example passage of the text in the 1602 edition.
- The men whom king James in 1604 put to produce a new bible-edition, were given forty wide-margin copies of the 1602 edition of Bishops’ bible, and were told to use that text as a basis and keep as close to it as possible. → esa037.htm
- For more, see the other parts of this multi-page index, or use the search function.
- The “root of bitterness” of Hebrews 12:15 – what or who was it? → eaa127.htm
- Embitterment – The apostle Paul to the Jewish saints, “Do not harden your hearts, as in the embitterment, in the day of testing in the desert.” → exa109.htm – (eaa127.htm)
- The English word “blasphemy” comes from the old Greek noun blasphêmia which simply meant “slander”, “railing” (literally, “speaking evil [of]”.)
- In old Greek, the verb blasphêmeô meant “to speak evil [of]”. The noun blasphemia referred to “railing”, “evil talk”. The adjective blasphêmos meant “evil-speaking”, “slanderous”.
- Examples of word-usage in the NT: Romans 3:8 and 14:16 and Ephesians 4:31 (see the Greek text).
- “It is more blessed to give than to receive”, Acts 20:35. The apostle Paul reminded the elders from Ephesus about those words of Jesus. The context, Acts 20:17–38, shows that Paul told the elders whom he was addressing, to be on the giving side, just as he himself had been. → ema026.htm
- Regarding the “tithe question”, and such passages as Malachi 3:9–10, see the article ema018.htm.
- The word “beatitudes” is connected to blessing and happiness. Explanation: In the Latin Vulgate version, nine consecutive verses, Matthew 5:3–11, begin with the word beati; thence the concept “the nine beatitudes”. Beati (singular beatus) means “happy”, “blessed”. In the Greek text the first word in those verses is makarioi, which also refers to blessing and happiness.
- Should one ask for “a blessing on food”? The meaning of Matthew 14:19 has been misunderstood. → eba107.htm
Blood (Acts 15) → eoa046.htm
Boethusians → (eoa138.htm)
Bogomils → (eaa037.htm)
Next section: Bond to BYZ (the other sections → key00.htm)
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